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What are the problems faced by horticulture farmers?

What are the problems faced by horticulture farmers?

The major problem in horticulture farming were found to be lack of market, lack of market information, stiff competition, lack of marketing skills and distance to potential markets, lack of market access due to poor roads, high youth’s exploitation by middle men, lack of marketing skills and low prices.

Which crop is chilling sensitive?

In chilling-sensitive plants, the critical threshold temperature may vary with stage of development. For example, in avocados, papayas, honeydew melons, tomatoes, and mangos, the less mature fruits are usually more sensitive to chilling than the more mature fruits (2, 49-51).

How damage occurs to horticultural produce?

Damage is often caused by transferring produce from one container to another. If possible, produce should be harvested directly into the container in which it will be stored and/or transported.

What are the problems and constraints in producing horticultural crops?

Major horticulture production constraints include pests, drought, shortage of fertiliser, and the price of fuel for pumping irrigation water.

What are the characteristics of horticultural crops?

Color, texture, size, and flavor continue to be the predominant quality characteristics important for successful international marketing of horticultural crops. Product nutraceutical value is also a quality characteristic playing a significantly more important role among consumers in making purchasing decisions.

What is chilling injury in horticultural crops?

Chilling injury is damage to plant parts caused by temperatures above the freezing point (32°F, 0°C). Plants of tropical or subtropical origin are most susceptible. Chilling-injured leaves may become purple or reddish and in some cases wilt. Both flowers and fruit of sensitive species can be injured.

What is chill injury?

Chilling injury (CI) is a physiological defect of plants and their products that results in reduced quality and loss of product utilization following exposure to low but nonfreezing temperatures.

What are the causes of post harvest losses in horticultural crops?

Mainly, during retailing, rotting, mechanical damage, poor handling, improper management of temperature and relative humidity, and hygiene problems during handling are among the major causes of postharvest losses.

How can you maintain the quality of most horticultural crops?

Keep harvested products out of the sun (use an empty container, shade cloth or other protection) to avoid direct sun injury and unnecessary heating of the product. Move the product quickly from the field. Injured areas on fresh produce lead to increased postharvest decay and water loss.

What is the advantage and disadvantage of horticulture?

Advantages and Urban Horticulture Drawbacks:

S. No. Advantages Disadvantages
1. Reduces Pollution Costly Procedure
2. Reduces Temperature High Maintenance
3. Provides Fresh Air Requires Huge Labor Force
4. Provides Employment Skilled Labor and Techniques are necessary

What are the effects of chilling injury?

Consequences of chilling injury are failure to ripen and develop full color and flavor, irregular (blotchy) color development, premature softening, surface pitting, browning of seeds, and increased decay (especially Black mold caused by Alternaria spp.).

Why is chilling injury important?

Fruit and vegetable crops often are susceptible to chilling injury when cooled below 13 to 16 °C (55 to 60 °F). Chilling injury reduces the quality of the product and shortens shelf life. The table below provides some examples of the symptoms of chilling injury in a variety of crops.

How do you control chilling injuries?

In addition hot water dip treatments, intermittent warming, and rinsing and brushing at temperatures of 60 oC for a few seconds have been also reported to be effective at reducing the symptoms of chilling injury.

What is chilling injury in horticulture?

What are symptoms of chilling injury?

Chilling injury occurs at temperatures well above freezing point. The tissue becomes weakened leading to cellular dysfunctions. Symptoms include surface lesions/pitting, internal discoloration, water soaking of the tissue, failure to ripen normally and increased susceptibility to decay organisms such as Alternaria.

What are the 4 causes of harvest loss?

What are the factors that influence the expression of chill injury?

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS and ASSESSMENT of CHILLING INJURY. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Expression of Chilling Injury. Light-Induced Damage During Chilling. Assessment of Chilling Sensitivity by Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES, MOLECULAR BASIS, and CONCEPTS of CHILLING INJURY.

What are the symptoms of CI in tropical horticulture?

Some common CI symptoms in tropical horticultural commodities are pitting, discoloration, water- soaked appearance, internal breakdown, failure to ripen, loss of flavor and aroma, and decay (Hardenburg et al., 1986).

What can we learn from the study of Chilling injury?

It gives basic information which describes biochemical changes, molecular basis, and concepts of chilling injury. Additionally, it describes the development of chilling injury in crops of tropical, subtropical, and temperate origin. This interesting resource places emphasis on assessment, prevention, and reduction of chilling injury.

What are the cellular events of Chilling injury?

The cellular events of chilling injury can be separated into primary and secondary events. Primary events are transiently reversible, but become irreversible, particularly with the onset of cell death and tissue necrosis.