What are the symptoms of a pharyngeal pouch?
A pharyngeal pouch, also known as Zenker’s diverticulum, occurs when part of the pharyngeal lining herniates through the muscles of the pharyngeal wall. This occurs mainly in older people. Presenting symptoms include dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, halitosis, hoarseness, and chronic cough.
Which pharyngeal pouch forms thyroid?
Fourth pouch superior parathyroid glands and ultimobranchial body which forms the parafollicular C-Cells of the thyroid gland.
What is the fate of pharyngeal clefts and pouches?
pharyngeal cleft 1: develops into the external auditory meatus (the corresponding 1st pharyngeal pouch develops into the auditory (or Eustacian) tube, and the intervening membrane develops into the tympanic membrane).
What is the treatment for pharyngeal pouch?
Surgery is the only treatment for pharyngeal pouch. There are a variety of surgical approaches split into two main groups: endoscopic and external approaches.
Is parathyroid an endodermal gland?
Embryologically, the parathyroid glands derive from the endoderm of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches.
What do pharyngeal pouches develop into?
The resulting pouches give rise to the middle ear cavity, Eustachian tube, mastoid air cells, palatine tonsils, thymus, parathyroid, and parafollicular cells of the thyroid.  Each of these tissues develops from their respective pharyngeal pouch, or pouches, in the case of the parathyroid gland.
What do the pharyngeal pouches develop into?
What do each pharyngeal pouches develop into?
The pharyngeal pouches develop into a series of structures that include the pharyngotympanic tube, middle ear cavity, palatine tonsil, thymus, the four parathyroid glands, and the ultimobranchial bodies of the thyroid gland.
How common is a pharyngeal pouch?
A Zenker’s Diverticulum herniates out backwards as a pouch from the pharynx, above the Cricopharyngeal muscle. It is a fairly uncommon condition, occurring most commonly in men in their 70s and 80s, with an incidence of 0.01% to 0.11%.
How is a pharyngeal pouch diagnosed?
The definitive test for this condition when suspected clinically is a barium swallow (). The barium will outline the pouch and will also show the indentation that the scarred cricopharyngeus muscle causes. Chest X Ray or CT scan can also be important in patients with recurrent cough or aspiration symptoms.
Why do we have 4 parathyroid glands?
Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in your bones. You can easily live with one (or even 1/2) parathyroid gland. Removing all 4 parathyroid glands will cause very bad symptoms of too little calcium (hypOparathyroidism).
Which pharyngeal pouch most likely gives rise to these aberrant parathyroid glands?
The third pharyngeal pouch gives rise to the inferior parathyroid glands, while the superior parathyroids arise from the fourth pharyngeal pouch.
How is pharyngeal pouch diagnosed?
Medical tests to diagnose pharyngeal pouch To determine if your symptoms are caused by pharyngeal pouch or another condition, your specialist may recommend specific tests such as a diagnostic endoscopy or a barium x-ray test – an x-ray with a white liquid that shows clearly in x-ray scans.
Why are pharyngeal pouches important?
Pharyngeal pouches derivatives produce tissues necessary for hearing, calcium homeostasis, and adequate immune response. The first pharyngeal pouch develops into the middle ear cavity and the eustachian tube, which joins the tympanic cavity to the nasopharynx.
Is pharyngeal pouch congenital?
Congenital lateral pharyngeal diverticula are usually unilateral, most often to the left, and occur singly. They can be seen as cystic structures connected by a narrow duct of varying lengths to the tonsillar fossa or the pyriform sinus, either to its base at the level of the vallecula, or to its apex.
What is the difference between pharyngeal arch and pharyngeal pouch?
Each of these is surrounded by mesenchyme. Arches do not develop simultaneously but instead possess a “staggered” development. Pharyngeal pouches form on the endodermal side between the arches, and pharyngeal grooves (or clefts) form from the lateral ectodermal surface of the neck region to separate the arches.
What happens if all 4 parathyroid glands are removed?
Only one half functioning parathyroid gland is needed for calcium control. If all four parathyroid glands were injured or removed during surgery, the blood calcium levels can become lower than normal.
What activates the parathyroid gland?
Parathyroid hormone is mainly controlled by the negative feedback of calcium levels in the blood to the parathyroid glands. Low calcium levels in the blood stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion, whereas high calcium levels in the blood prevent the release of parathyroid hormone.