What are the applications of Ellingham diagram?
The main application of Ellingham diagrams is in the extractive metallurgy industry, where it helps to select the best reducing agent for various ores in the extraction process, purification and grade setting for steel manufacturing.
How do you read Ellingham diagrams?
Reading pO2 from the Ellingham diagram A line is drawn from the origin of the graph (T = 0, ΔG = 0) through the point on the Ellingham line of interest, at the required temperature. The equilibrium partial pressure is read off at the point where the drawn line crosses the nomographic scale.
Which is better reducing agent in Ellingham diagram?
Solution : (i) Both thermodynamics and kinetic factors make carbon monoxide a better reducing agent that carbon.
Which metal is used to reduce alumina in Ellingham diagram?
Hence, Mg will be used to reduce alumina.
What is the main function of Ellingham diagram?
An Ellingham diagram is a tool widely used in the field of extraction metallurgy in order to determine conditions such as the necessary temperature needed to reduce the ores of essential metals. The diagram is a plot of Gibbs free energy versus temperature.
What are features of Ellingham diagram?
Salient Features of the Ellingham Diagram For the formation of metallic oxides, the curves in the Ellingham diagram are straight lines with a positive slope which will be proportional to the change in entropy of the system. The lower the line of a metal in the Ellingham diagram, the greater its oxide’s stability.
Which is better reducing agent C or CO?
Therefore, carbon monoxide (CO) is a better reducing agent at 673 K than coke (C ).
Which is better reducing agent at 983k C or CO?
`CO` is more effective reducing agent than coke below 983 K, but above 983 K the reverse is true.
What are Ellingham diagrams write any two features of it?
Solution. Features of Ellingham diagram: (a) The graph for the formation of a metal oxide is a straight line with an upward slope. (b) There is a sudden change in the slopes for some metal oxides, such as MgO, ZnO and HgO.
What is limitation of Ellingham diagram?
Limitations of Ellingham diagram :→ Ellingham diagram is based only on the thermodynamic concepts. It does not explain the kinetics of the reduction process. The graph simply indicates whether a reaction is possible or not but not the kinetics of the reaction. → The interpretation of ∆G°is depends on K [∆G° = –RTl.
What is Ellingham diagram PDF?
Thermodynamic principles of Metallurgy: i.e: M(s) + O2 (g) MO(s) This is known as Ellingham diagram. The Ellingham diagram helps you to choose the right reducing agent to convert an oxide (ore) to metal. In other words it helps us to predict the feasibility of thermal reduction of an ore.
What is meant by Ellingham diagram?
Ellingham diagram was basically a curve which related the Gibbs energy value with the temperature. Gibbs energy is given as: ΔG = ΔH – TΔS. Where ΔH is the change in enthalpy and ΔS is the change in entropy.
What are the limitations of Ellingham diagram?
Limitations of Ellingham Diagram 1.It ignores the reaction kinetics meaning it does not provide any information about the kinetics of the reduction reaction. 2. The analysis is thermodynamic in nature, it means the reactions which are predicted by the Ellingham diagram can be very slow.
Why is CO a reducing agent?
Solution : Since `CO` gets easily oxidised to `CO_2`, it acts as a powerful reducing agent .
Why is a better reducing agent than carbon at high temperature?
Answer. Both thermodynamic and kinetic factors make carbon monoxide (CO) a better reducing agent than carbon. When coke or coal is used to reduce a metal oxide, it gets oxidized to CO. And, when CO itself is the reducing agent, it is oxidized to CO2 .
What does Ellingham diagram represent?
An Ellingham diagram is a graph showing the temperature dependence of the stability for compounds. This analysis is usually used to evaluate the ease of reduction of metal oxides and sulphides. Ellingham diagram represents change in free energy ΔG with temperature.
What are Ellingham diagrams write the features of it?
Features of Ellingham diagram: (a) The graph for the formation of a metal oxide is a straight line with an upward slope. (b) There is a sudden change in the slopes for some metal oxides, such as MgO, ZnO and HgO.
Is CO soluble in water?
WaterEthanolAcetic acidBenzeneChloroformEthyl acetate
Carbon monoxide/Soluble in
Carbon monoxide condenses to the liquid at -192° C (-314° F) and it freezes at -199° C (-326° F). It is only slightly soluble in water, and its physical properties closely resemble those of nitrogen.
Which is the chief reducing agent?
During extraction of iron, CO is the chief reducing agent.