What is the anatomy of the middle ear?
Also known as the tympanic cavity, the middle ear is an air-filled, membrane-lined space located between the ear canal and the Eustachian tube, cochlea, and auditory nerve. The eardrum separates this space from the ear canal. The area is pressurized.
What are the functions of middle ear?
It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex.
What are the 6 middle ear bones?
The middle ear contains three tiny bones:
- Hammer (malleus) — attached to the eardrum.
- Anvil (incus) — in the middle of the chain of bones.
- Stirrup (stapes) — attached to the membrane-covered opening that connects the middle ear with the inner ear (oval window)
What are the three tiny bones in the middle ear called?
The incoming sound waves make the eardrum vibrate, and the vibrations travel to three tiny bones in the middle ear called the malleus, incus, and stapes—the Latin names for hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
What are the muscles in the middle ear?
Two muscles are involved in this reflex: the stapedius, which attaches to the neck of the stapes, and the tensor tympani, which attaches to the neck of the malleus. When activated, these muscles attenuate sound levels in the middle ear by dampening vibration of the ossicular chain.
Where is middle ear located?
The middle ear lies within the temporal bone, and extends from the tympanic membrane to the lateral wall of the inner ear. The main function of the middle ear is to transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear via the auditory ossicles.
What are the 3 auditory ossicles?
The middle ear consists of the tympanic membrane and the bony ossicles called the malleus, incus, and stapes. These three ossicles connect the tympanic membrane to the inner ear allowing for the transmission of sound waves.
What is malleus and incus?
The malleus (“hammer”), incus (“anvil”), and stapes (“stirrup”) are the three bones, also known as ossicles, of the inner ear. The malleus is the largest and the outermost of the bones, which are part of the auditory system.
What is the name of the eardrum?
The tympanic membrane is also called the eardrum. It separates the outer ear from the middle ear. When sound waves reach the tympanic membrane they cause it to vibrate.
How many muscles are in the middle ear?
There are two muscles within the middle ear that function to protect it from loud noses — the Tensor Tympani and the Stapedius.
How many middle ear muscles are there?
two middle ear muscles
There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani.
What nerve passes through the middle ear?
Of surgical importance are two branches of the facial nerve that also pass through the middle ear space. These are the horizontal portion of the facial nerve and the chorda tympani.
What is the structure of the middle ear?
MIDDLE EAR 2. MIDDLE EAR is an AIR filled space with structures. The TYMPANIC MEMBRANE (ear drum) vibrates in response to sound. Attached to it are 3 bones: The MALLEUS (hammer), INCUS (anvil), and the STAPES (stirrup) are the smallest bones in the body.
Which part of the ear is filled with air?
A healthy middle ear is filled with air. It is a rectangular space with four walls, a ceiling, and a floor. The lateral wall consists of the tympanic membrane.
What separates the anterior and posterior wall of the ear?
The anterior wall separates the middle ear from the internal carotid artery and has two openings—one for the auditory tube and one for the tensor tympani muscle. The posterior wall is a bony partition that separates the middle ear and the mastoid air cells.
What are the anomalies of the middle ear?
ANATOMY OF THE MIDDLE EAR BY: DR. POOJA SANAL KUMAR 3. MECKEL’S CARTILAGE REICHERT’S CARTILAGE 4. Anomalies Malformed ossicles Ossicular agenesis Malleus incus fusion Ossicular mass Incudostapedial joint disarticulation Facial nerve Stapedial artery 5.