What is the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection?
The most conclusive pathogenesis data to date reveal that actively infected non-immune host cells are the driving force in the inflammatory response to chlamydia. In vitro and mouse data indicate infected host epithelial cells not only drive influx of inflammatory cells, but release tissue-damaging molecules directly.
Can Chlamydia turn into HIV?
Anyone who is sexually active can get chlamydia, but the infection is more common in some groups, including young people and gay and bisexual men. If left untreated, the infection can cause complications, including infertility and reduced fertility. It can increase the likelihood of passing on or acquiring HIV.
What is the pathogen and mode of transmission for Chlamydia?
The Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium is most commonly spread through vaginal, oral and anal sex. It’s also possible for pregnant women to spread chlamydia to their children during delivery, causing pneumonia or a serious eye infection in the newborns.
What pathogen causes Chlamydia biology?
C. trachomatis is a Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen with a unique biphasic developmental cycle (3).
How does Chlamydia infect the cell?
Chlamydiae initiate their intracellular life cycle by invading cells in the form of elementary bodies (EBs) (1). EBs rapidly differentiate into reticulate bodies (RBs) that are metabolically active and proliferate inside cytoplasmic parasitophorous vacuoles termed inclusions (1).
What does Chlamydia affect in the body?
Chlamydia infection can affect several organs, including the penis, vagina, cervix, urethra, anus, eye, and throat. It can cause severe and sometimes permanent damage to the reproductive system.
Can chlamydia lead to HPV?
Among women with chlamydia, the odds ratio (OR) of HPV infection is 2.12 (95% CI 1.80, 2.49) and the OR of high-risk HPV infection is 2.32 (95% CI 2.02, 2.65).
How does chlamydia affect the body?
Chlamydia is a common STD that can cause infection among both men and women. It can cause permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system. This can make it difficult or impossible to get pregnant later. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb).
What is the origin of chlamydia?
He said Chlamydia pneumoniae was originally an animal pathogen that crossed the species barrier to humans and had adapted to the point where it could now be transmitted between humans. “What we think now is that Chlamydia pneumoniae originated from amphibians such as frogs,” he said.
Is Chlamydia an opportunistic pathogen?
Chlamydia trachomatis, a commensal microorganism of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is an opportunistic pathogen in the genital and respiratory tracts and the conjunctiva. Under conditions of reduced FOT, direct contact is the primary mode of transmission.
How does Chlamydia damage host cells?
ABSTRACT. Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that modulate apoptosis of the host cell. Strikingly, chlamydial infection has been reported both to inhibit and to induce apoptosis.
Can chlamydia affect your immune system?
The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma.
How does chlamydia evade the immune system?
Infections often occur without symptoms, a feature that has been attributed to the ability of the pathogen to evade the host immune response. We show here that C. trachomatis paralyses the host immune system by preventing the activation of polymorphic nuclear leukocytes (PMNs).
What is the difference between HPV and chlamydia?
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), an obligate intracellular parasitic bacterium, is the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Witkin et al., 2017) while human papillomavirus (HPV) has been documented to cause cervical cancer (Harden and Munger, 2017).
Can chlamydia cause abnormal cells?
Other STIs: HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection that causes cervical abnormalities, but it isn’t the only one. Others, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, can lead to inflamed cervical cells and trigger an abnormal result.
Is chlamydia bacterial or viral?
Bacterial infections include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Viral infections include human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes (HSV or herpes simplex virus), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Hepatitis B.
What causes chlamydia in females?
Chlamydia Causes Chlamydia trachomatis, the bacteria that causes chlamydia, most often spreads through unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal sex. You get it from the semen or vaginal fluid of an infected person. It can also pass from an infected person to another through genital contact, even if there’s no sex.
How does chlamydia invade the body?
The infectious form of Chlamydia, the elementary body (EB) enters into the host cell via endocytosis. Upon entry, the EB convert into the metabolically active, non-infectious reticulate body (RB), which replicates within a vaculolar compartment, termed the inclusion.
What cells does chlamydia infect?
Chlamydiae are small gram-negative obligate intracellular microorganisms that preferentially infect squamocolumnar epithelial cells. They include the genera Chlamydia (of which the type species is Chlamydia trachomatis) and Chlamydophila (eg, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila psittaci).
How does Chlamydia affect the immune system?