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Why are mycobacteriophages important?

Why are mycobacteriophages important?

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts. A large number of mycobacteriophages have been isolated and genomically characterized, providing insights into viral diversity and evolution, as well as fueling development of tools for mycobacterial genetics.

What is cocktail phage?

Phage cocktails can consist of individual phages which in aggregate can impact different bacterial species, e.g., bacterial species ‘A’ and bacterial species ‘B’ (Figure 1, right) [24,43]. Such cocktails, targeting multiple species, tend to be used empirically to treat general disease states.

What are Actinophages?

INTRODUCTION. Actinobacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria in the phylum Actinobacteria. The Actinobacteria encompass a large group of gram-positive bacteria found both terrestrially and aquatically and are prominent components of soil microbiomes (1).

What is a cluster phages?

In categorizing phages we use the term ‘clusters’ for groups of similar phages according to the usage of Hatfull and co-workers (Hatfull et al., 2010; Hatfull et al., 2013) and to avoid confusion with previously used terms such as ‘types’, ‘groups’ or current formal taxonomic classifications.

What are mycobacteriophages known?

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts including Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The first mycobacteriophages were isolated in the late 1940s using M. smegmatis as a host (1, 2), followed by isolation of phages that infect M. tuberculosis (3).

What do you mean by Mycophages?

Definitions of mycophage. a person or animal who eats fungi (especially mushrooms) synonyms: mycophagist. type of: eater, feeder. someone who consumes food for nourishment.

How is phage cluster determined?

In summary, mycobacteriophage cluster relationships may be determined using either whole genomes in an alignment-free FFP analysis or predicted using single genes (such as TMP) in a global-alignment maximum likelihood analysis.

Which of the following is an example of Mycovirus?

A well-known example of a mycovirus is the killer virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This toxin-producing dsRNA virus was characterized in the 1970s (11) and found to have two dsRNA segments: a larger, 4.5-kb dsRNA and a smaller, 1.5-kb satellite dsRNA.

What are the characteristics of a satellite virus?

Satellite viruses are particles that contain nucleic acid genomes encoding a structural protein that encapsidates the satellite genome. Satellite RNAs do not encode capsid protein, but are packaged by a protein encoded in the helper virus genome.

Are lytic phages used for phage therapy?

Conventional phage therapy relies on strictly lytic phages, which obligately kill their bacterial host. For treatment, lytic phages are compiled into preparations called “phage cocktails” which consist of multiple phages proven to have in vitro efficacy against the target pathogen.

Why are lytic phages used for phage therapy?

Phage therapy mainly utilizes obligately lytic phages to kill their respective bacterial hosts, while leaving human cells intact and reducing the broader impact on commensal bacteria that often results from antibiotic use.

Is Mycobacterium aerobic or anaerobic?

Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes.